What will happen to minorities when the only way to vote is online?

by Janis D. Hazel on November 2, 2010

U.S. history is fraught with conflict regarding civil rights issues, policy, and regulations when it comes to minorities. Slavery was abolished in 1865. Women got the right to vote in 1920. African Americans gained that right in 1965. While the nation has made many strides forward in areas of civil rights, there is talk of moving the nation into an online-only voting process. But the question is, what are the consequences of such a change?

The Voting Rights Act, passed in 1965 to end discrimination against blacks, prohibits states from making changes in voting procedures without Federal approval to guarantee voting won’t discriminate against minorities. The Act applies to any changes that could decrease minority participation.

The U.S. Department of Commerce issued a report in February 2010, entitled Digital Nation: 21st Century America’s Progress Toward Universal Broadband Internet Access, which examined the use of computers, the Internet, and other information technology tools by the American people. The report concluded that demographic disparities among different ethnic groups’ access, adoption, and usage persist.

With the current state of the “digital divide” between technologically savvy and wired white and Asian voters and less digitally literate and technology-equipped blacks and Latinos, online-only elections could be seen as a violation of voting rights for the “technology have-nots” if there are no other options (i.e. the in-person and mail-in voting methods we use today).


Remember, it took the nation 144 years to give women the right to vote, so what’s the hurry to bring voting to the Internet? Convenience? But at what cost? E-voting must have system integrity that cannot be manipulated, exploited, or breached. Some argue that if technology currently supports online financial transactions, why not extend it to e-voting? The reason is simple: Financial institutions have insurance to repay customers if their accounts are hacked, but the cost of someone’s ballot being compromised or anonymity being breached is immeasurable.

The consequence of compromising democracy is greater than the cost of losing dollars. There are numerous technological challenges, but also socioeconomic, policy, legal, and administrative challenges that are inherently at odds with exclusive digital voting. Keeping this in mind, jurisdictions have been sticking with 20th-century voting techniques.

Online voting or e-voting is a long way off. With innovation, Internet-only voting may be inevitable, but Paul Stenbjorn, Information Services Director at the DC Board of Elections and Ethics (DC BOEE), says, “It is many, many years away, more than a decade, possibly more than a generation away.” Before it can happen, though, several problems related to ensuring voters’ privacy and minimizing the potential for security breaches must be resolved.

The DC BOEE leads the nation in attempting to overcome the security obstacles and offer e-voting. Two months before the 2010 general election, they sought the guidance of the tech community in the development of election systems for digital ballot delivery and return to provide military and overseas voters a convenient method of voting.

When the BOEE’s Digital Vote by Mail application was deployed, an invitation to the nation’s best tech minds was sent out to try to hack into the system to discover deficiencies and vulnerabilities. Within 36 hours of the system going live, a team of University of Michigan computer science graduate students, led by Professor J. Alex Halderman, cracked the security code, hacked their way into the system, and left an audio file as their calling card featuring the Wolverine football team fight song “Hail to the Victors” as evidence that the system had been compromised. Professor Halderman discusses his team’s findings in his blog, Hacking the D.C. Internet Voting Pilot.


The estimate that it could be an entire generation before the only way to vote is online might provide civil and human rights advocates with a sense of relief; however, the nation needs to remain vigilant in making sure that broadband is accessible for the entire electorate before moving to an exclusive e-voting system.

The NAACP, through its Civic Engagement Programs, points out the potential that exclusive e-voting has of trampling voters’ civil rights and continues to fight for social justice for all Americans. Other organizations that target underrepresented communities are also preparing for a future where e-voting may become a reality. One such organization is the Hip Hop Caucus (HHC), which describes itself as “a civil and human rights organization for the 21st Century,” and aims to promote political activism for young (ages 18 through 39) U.S. voters using hip-hop music and culture so that when e-voting becomes a reality, these voters will be ready.


More young people voted in 2008 than in any other election in U.S. History, and the Hip Hop Caucus can take a lot of the credit. The HHC, a member of the Leadership Conference on Civil and Human Rights, was instrumental in getting young minority voters registered. Their Respect My Vote public awareness campaign is the only major non-partisan Hip Hop voter mobilization campaign this election cycle. It focuses on educating, registering, and mobilizing young people of color. Online voter registration is the next logical step before e-voting.

Before online-only voting becomes a reality, many more programs like this one should be established to help encourage, and in many cases educate, minority populations about the online voting process and voting’s overall importance.


As the eventuality of online-only voting looms ever nearer, it is increasingly important that we assess the impact of such a measure. Efforts like those of the DC BOEE, NAACP, and HHC are a start, but if the impact is not properly assessed, the consequences – both socioeconomic and societal – could be dire. If the nation moves to exclusive e-voting, then broadband universal access is critical to our democracy infrastructure so that no ballot is left behind.

  • Janis D. Hazel was appointed by the U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of the Census to manage the Washington, DC Decennial 2010 Census operations as the Local Census Manager for Washington, DC. She’s responsible for obtaining data from the District of Columbia’s residents to ensure the community receives its fair share of government funding and help federal and state agencies, elected officials, and businesses provide the services residents and visitors rely on every day for the next decade.

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  • 2010 Voter

    If minorities don’t vote in the November 2, 2010 election you can probably get a pretty good picture of what will happen to minorities when the only way to vote is online. Why would a class of people not vote when the probability of further disenfranchisement is increased by not voting.

  • wow

    This is scary! I’ve heard talk about this, but I had no idea moves were being made to actually make it come to be. Imagine the corruption there can be with absolutely no paper trail for votes. Remember the 2000 election fiasco? Remember how they had a team of 3 people, live on television, recounting those ballots? This could never happen with an online system. You think there’s fraud now? Just wait till we switch over to an online voting system.

  • DianneG

    It’s my fear that many voters, particularly minorities, will be “out of sight and out of mind” per se when this e-voting move comes to pass. I don’t want that to happen. I believe voters should definitely be encouraged to vote, but also informed as to how a system such as that would work. Many elderly people don’t pay bills online because of fear about how the internet works and security reason, but I don’t want that same fear to keep people from voting because of lack of knowledge or familiarity of the internet.

  • Boe

    Haha loving the picture. But seriously…looking at some of the things you say on this site, clearly many minorities aren’t digitally connected. How the hell are they going to vote if the only way to vote is online? Are we going to sacrifice fair voting and civil rights for the convenience of those fortunate enough to connect?

  • Terry

    Our efforts should be focused on bringing more people to the polls, not making it harder for them! Many seniors are still “scared” to use the Internet and millions more people remain unconnected to the internet for whatever reason. My opinion, you cant go fully digital until all who remain offline, get online. Before our Elections go digital, don’t you think America’s population should come first?? I mean, I am all about technologically revolutionizing our country, as I am writing this from my iPad now, but honestly, we would lose a significant amount of voices/votes that matter most in elections.

  • Voter

    The best way to expand voting, to make it easier and more accessible, is to adopt early voting. Early voting works very well.

    The best way to limit access to the ballot, short of good old-fashioned intimidation, is to rush to online voting.

  • Mmpdet

    Janis, You are always right on target…..

  • Nerd

    First, universal broadband access and adoption is rapidly becoming critical to nearly every facet of our society and economy. Once the security (and necessary transparency) are in place to protect consumers and constituents, I think the move to provide services online may act as an incentive to get people online – so long as there are alternative choices those without broadband access can use until universal broadband is achieved.

    Moving services online is attractive because it provides many improvements in efficiency and accuracy that should not be devalued, but these gains should also not come at the cost of basic civil rights.

  • Shayaj107

    Unfortunately this is probably a couple of generations away from becoming reality and for minorities maybe more. Many minorities are not very comfortable with computers and for good reasons. I use it because I like conveniences and take all precautions from being invaded by hackers. Corruption is an issue with voting as we know it. I don’t think I would be able to rely on on-line voting ever and I love being on cyberspace. And forget about trying to attract those that are skeptical of getting out to vote.

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